The Tipping Point Phase 2 evaluation is using a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial to assess individual-, relational- and social norms change outcomes linked to CEFM. Baseline and endline data are collected in each arm through household enumeration, surveys with girls (and boys in Nepal) and adult community members, focus group discussion (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with adolescent girls and boys, and adult women and men.
PHASE 2 QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION TOOLS
PHASE 2 QUALITATIVE EVALUATION TOOLS
KII tool – for key community members, government officials, and school personnel in Nepal
PHASE 2 QUALITATIVE MONITORING TOOLS
The Rolling Profile is a monitoring tool for collecting longitudinal data every 4-6 months to assess changes in participants’ attitudes, perceptions and reported behavior over the course of the intervention. This monitoring tool is a semi-structured interview developed to assess progress towards Tipping Point’s outcomes, with specific focus on relational-level change, i.e. adolescents’ connectedness with their parents and parents’ understanding of the life, concerns and aspirations of their children. The interviews also monitor changes in gendered expectations, based on perceived gender roles.
The Facilitator Observation tool is used to record observations on facilitation skills during a session with either girls, boys, mothers and fathers. This tool is used to monitor both the progression of individual facilitators’ skills as well as the average skill level of facilitators across an area. Around 10% of sessions are observed every month to ensure implementation fidelity to the standards set by Tipping Point.
Participant Feedback Session Report
After each session observation, we host an opportunity for participant feedback. Senior implementing partner staff collect feedback through participatory tools. Girls, boys, mothers and fathers provide input at least once every six months.
This tool monitors the number and type of public events organized by the girls, to challenge gendered social norms or to demand their rights in the community. This qualitative monitoring tool is filled by the Field Facilitator, by interviewing girl leaders, to understand exclusively from their perspective, which sections of the population provides support in organizing these events, from which sections, most resistance and backlash is received and how girl groups plan to mitigate these challenges in the future. Data from this tool also becomes a way of assessing the sensitivity of other participant groups towards gendered social norms and girls’ rights.
A Home Visit report is filled by a Field Facilitator when a TP participant is identified at risk of dropping out of the program. These tools monitor the fidelity of the program, by assessing the reasons for dropping out and encouraging the participants to rejoin, by explaining the purpose and importance of the Tipping Point sessions.
Phase 2 Quantitative Monitoring Tools (Attendance Tools)
- Girls’ and Boys’ groups
- Parents’ groups
- Other participant groups
- Inter-group Dialogues
- Community Events
Phase 1 Evaluation Tools
Tipping Point Phase 1 was unique in that it moved beyond standard discourse and approaches that aim to address child marriage and adopted a specific focus on gendered social norms as a key contributing factor to processes of change. A 2017 qualitative evaluation of Tipping Point in Bangladesh and Nepal incorporated multiple approaches to measuring the status of social norms using different methods. CARE’s Social Norms Analysis Plot (SNAP) framework tool informed the development of tools and the sequencing of different phases of data collection allowed for refining the tools as needed between phases. This brief provides an overview of the various tools used in the evaluation and how they contributed to assessing social norm change within Tipping point communities.
Phase 1 Tools for Social Norms Measurement
- FGD tool – for Adolescent Girls and Boys, Adults, and Religious Leaders
- Photovoice tool – for Adolescent Girls, Boys and Mothers in Nepal and Bangladesh
- SenseMaker tool – for key community members in Bangladesh
The results are in! Tipping Points’ RCT baseline evaluation, measuring the rates of child marriage, adolescent girls’ agency and social norms in Bangladesh and Nepal demonstrate the key drivers of child, early and forced marriage in Tipping Point program areas, and contain recommendations for policy and practice.
BASELINE REPORT- NEPAL
Emory University, in collaboration with Care USA, Care Nepal, and Interdisciplinary Analysts, is leading an impact evaluation of the Tipping Point approach in Nepal. The baseline study found that in program areas, even girls in school were at risk of being married early if perceived to be disobedient, for example by roaming or interacting with boys. Restrictive norms around girls’ mobility, interacting with boys, and participating in leisure activities outside the home intensify during adolescence to guard against’ reputational damage. Norms are somewhat in flux, especially among educated families, but girls who violate them are at risk of being married off early. Despite norms being in flux, girls face limitations in their ability to participate in decisions about the timing of marriage and choice of spouse. Collective action among adolescents is in a nascent stage, but there are some adult stakeholders who are committed to supporting such activity.
BASELINE REPORT- BANGLADESH
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), in collaboration with Care USA and CARE Bangladesh, is leading an impact evaluation of the Tipping Point approach in Bangladesh. In program areas, there were high rates of child marriage reported, and girls’ aspirations for when they will get married is at odds with the reality. The majority of girls accepted gender-inequitable attitudes, including the control by their family about their mobility and other aspects of their lives. Girls rarely negotiate marriage, since social norms related to girls’ voice and decision-making would lead to girls’ opinion being ignored. Girls’ interaction with boys outside of family was also restricted and the result of violating this norm could be early marriage. The study recommends building girls’ movement for collective action in favor of girls’ rights and community sensitization to girls’ rights, both of which are important components of the Tipping Point Phase 2 package.