Welcome to the Resources Home Page! Please browse around our website for myriad publications and learning about Tipping Point and the root cause child, early and forced marriage (CEFM). 


The Tipping Point Program Summaries

Phase 1 Program Summary

Phase 2 Program Summary

Phase 2 Results Framework

Phase 2 Intervention Description

Phase 2 Research Design

Community Participatory Analysis

Community Participatory Analysis (CPA): The Tipping Point Community Participatory Analysis Study was designed to deepen understanding of the contextual factors and root causes driving the prevalence of child marriage in particular regions of Nepal and Bangladesh, countries with some of the highest rates of child marriage in the world. The study focuses on distinctive regions within Nepal (the Terai) and Bangladesh (the haor areas) with particularly high rates of child marriage.

Community Participatory Analysis- Global Findings

CPA Bangladesh specific findings

CPA Nepal specific findings

CPA Methods Brief

Social Norms Innovation Briefs


  • Football for Girls: Read about how girls’ participation in sports is changing social norms in some parts of Bangladesh.
  • Tea Stall Conversations: Men gather to drink tea and discuss gender roles, girls’ rights, and child, early, and forced marriage.
  • Amader Kotha: Adolescents use street drama and dialogue to challenge existing social norms and show positive alternatives.
  • Amra-o-Korchi (‘We are also doing’): Girls and boys switch roles to challenge gendered social norms, where boys do household work usually done by girls (cooking, doing laundry, and so on). 


  • Cooking competition: Boys participate in a cooking competition, and girls judge their food.
  • Intergenerational dialogues:  Communication gap between adolescents and their parents is bridged in order to understand adolescent’s aspirations better.
  • Raksha Bandhar: The traditional ritual of a sister tying a thread around a brother’s wrist and asking him for protection is modified where brothers also tie a ribbon around their sisters’ wrist and both vow to practice gender equality and pursue their dreams.
  • Street Drama: Girls and boys perform street dramas to challenge social norms around dowry and early marriage and introduce the benefits of investing in girls.

Photovoice Online Gallery

Photovoice is an effective participatory research and evaluation method that provides a greater depth of understanding of how a program has impacted the lives of its participants. When completed as part of a larger evaluation, it provides a rich context to enhance the data that emerges from the other collection methods. Because it is participatory in nature and topics can be driven by the participant, new insights also have the potential to be uncovered. With Photovoice, participants are taught basic photography and asked to document aspects of their lives through guided assignments. Participants then return to the group to select and discuss the images they took. Through this process, a safe space is created whereby participants identify, discuss, and address issues that are important to them. The Photovoice method allows stories of how the participants have experienced change in a way that other qualitative methods cannot, and it can provide rich and moving quotes and images that speak to non-technical audiences in a powerful way.

CARE’s CEFM Global Experience

CARE’s CEFM Global Experience: CARE’s approach to addressing child, early and forced marriage (CEFM) incorporates attention to social norm change, reflecting the complexity of girls’ lives with multi-sectoral programming, building girls’ agency and solidarity, engaging men and boys for gender equality, bringing insight to advocacy, and tackling the issue in emergency response. This document lays out CARE’s approach and experience in CEFM prevention and mitigation across the globe.

English CEFM Capacity Statement

French CEFM Capacity Statement

Spanish CEFM Capacity Statement

Arabic CEFM Capacity Statement

Intervention Manuals

Tipping Point initiative has utilized learnings from Phase 1 to develop and test a holistic and replicable implementation package. Tipping Point’s approach uses synchronized engagement with different participant groups (e.g., girls, boys, parents, community leaders), around key programmatic topics, and creates public spaces for all community members to be part of the dialogue. Tipping Point’s approach is rooted in challenging social expectations and repressive norms and promoting girl-driven movement building and activism. These components are designed to help adolescent girls find and collectively step into spaces to reflect on and tackle inequality.

The core intervention package spans 18 months, consisting of 45 sessions in total. In addition to the sessions in this manual, the intervention package includes several other components.

Theory of Change

Phase 2 Theory of Change

Phase 1 Vision of Change

Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning Tools

The Tipping Point Phase 2 evaluation is using a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial to assess individual-, relational- and social norms change outcomes linked to CEFM. Baseline and endline data are collected in each arm through household enumeration, surveys with girls (and boys in Nepal) and adult community members, focus group discussion (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with adolescent girls and boys, and adult women and men.

Tipping Point Phase 1 was unique in that it moved beyond standard discourse and approaches that aim to address child marriage and adopted a specific focus on gendered social norms as a key contributing factor to processes of change. A 2017 qualitative evaluation of Tipping Point in Bangladesh and Nepal incorporated multiple approaches to measuring the status of social norms using different methods. CARE’s Social Norms Analysis Plot (SNAP) framework tool informed the development of tools and the sequencing of different phases of data collection allowed for refining the tools as needed between phases. This brief provides an overview of the various tools used in the evaluation and how they contributed to assessing social norm change within Tipping point communities.

Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning tools are available here.

Phase 1 Evaluation Reports

Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning Methods Briefs