The results are in! Tipping Points’ RCT baseline evaluation, measuring the rates of child marriage, adolescent girls’ agency and social norms in Bangladesh and Nepal demonstrate the key drivers of child, early and forced marriage in Tipping Point program areas, and contain recommendations for policy and practice.
Baseline Report- Nepal
Emory University, in collaboration with Care USA, Care Nepal, and Interdisciplinary Analysts, is leading an impact evaluation of the Tipping Point approach in Nepal. The baseline study found that in program areas, even girls in school were at risk of being married early if perceived to be disobedient, for example by roaming or interacting with boys. Restrictive norms around girls’ mobility, interacting with boys, and participating in leisure activities outside the home intensify during adolescence to guard against’ reputational damage. Norms are somewhat in flux, especially among educated families, but girls who violate them are at risk of being married off early. Despite norms being in flux, girls face limitations in their ability to participate in decisions about the timing of marriage and choice of spouse. Collective action among adolescents is in a nascent stage, but there are some adult stakeholders who are committed to supporting such activity.
Baseline Report- Bangladesh
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), in collaboration with Care USA and CARE Bangladesh, is leading an impact evaluation of the Tipping Point approach in Bangladesh. In program areas, there were high rates of child marriage reported, and girls’ aspirations for when they will get married is at odds with the reality. The majority of girls accepted gender-inequitable attitudes, including the control by their family about their mobility and other aspects of their lives. Girls rarely negotiate marriage, since social norms related to girls’ voice and decision-making would lead to girls’ opinion being ignored. Girls’ interaction with boys outside of family was also restricted and the result of violating this norm could be early marriage. The study recommends building girls’ movement for collective action in favor of girls’ rights and community sensitization to girls’ rights, both of which are important components of the Tipping Point Phase 2 package.