Phase 2 Monitoring and Evaluation Tools
The Tipping Point Phase 2 evaluation is using a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial to assess individual-, relational- and social norms change outcomes linked to CEFM. Baseline and endline data are collected in each arm through household enumeration, surveys with girls (and boys in Nepal) and adult community members, focus group discussion (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with adolescent girls and boys, and adult women and men.
Phase 2 Quantitative Evaluation tools
- Bangladesh Girls’ Survey
- Nepal Girls’ Survey 1
- Nepal Boys’ Survey 2
- Bangladesh Community Survey
- Nepal Community Survey 3
Phase 2 Qualitative Evaluation tools
- Norm by Norm guide – for Adolescent Girls and Adolescent Boys and in Bangladesh and Parents in Nepal and Bangladesh
- FGD tool – Social Norms Vignette for Adolescent Girls and Adolescent Boys in Nepal
- IDI tool – for Adolescent Girls and Adolescent Boys in Nepal
- KII tool – for key community members, government officials, and school personnel in Nepal
Phase 2 Qualitative Monitoring Tools
The Rolling Profile is a monitoring tool for collecting longitudinal data every 4-6 months to assess changes in participants’ attitudes, perceptions and reported behavior over the course of the intervention. This monitoring tool is a semi-structured interview developed to assess progress towards Tipping Point’s outcomes, with specific focus on relational-level change, i.e. adolescents’ connectedness with their parents and parents’ understanding of the life, concerns and aspirations of their children. The interviews also monitor changes in gendered expectations, based on perceived gender roles.
The Facilitator Observation tool is used to record observations on facilitation skills during a session with either girls, boys, mothers and fathers. This tool is used to monitor both the progression of individual facilitators’ skills as well as the average skill level of facilitators across an area. Around 10% of sessions are observed every month to ensure implementation fidelity to the standards set by Tipping Point.
Participant Feedback Session Report
After each session observation, we host an opportunity for participant feedback. Senior implementing partner staff collect feedback through participatory tools. Girls, boys, mothers and fathers provide input at least once every six months.
This tool monitors the number and type of public events organized by the girls, to challenge gendered social norms or to demand their rights in the community. This qualitative monitoring tool is filled by the Field Facilitator, by interviewing girl leaders, to understand exclusively from their perspective, which sections of the population provides support in organizing these events, from which sections, most resistance and backlash is received and how girl groups plan to mitigate these challenges int eh future. Data from this tool also becomes a way of assessing the sensitivity of other participant groups towards gendered social norms and girls’ rights.
A Home Visit report is filled by a Field Facilitator when a TP participant is identified at risk of dropping out of the program. These tools monitor the fidelity of the program, by assessing the reasons for dropping out and encouraging the participants to rejoin, by explaining the purpose and importance of the Tipping Point sessions.
Phase 2 Quantitative Monitoring Tools (Attendance Tools)
- Girls’ and Boys’ groups
- Parents’ groups
- Other participant groups
- Inter-group Dialogues
- Community Events
Phase 1 Evaluation Tools
Tipping Point Phase 1 was unique in that it moved beyond standard discourse and approaches that aim to address child marriage and adopted a specific focus on gendered social norms as a key contributing factor to processes of change. A 2017 qualitative evaluation of Tipping Point in Bangladesh and Nepal incorporated multiple approaches to measuring the status of social norms using different methods. CARE’s Social Norms Analysis Plot (SNAP) framework tool informed the development of tools and the sequencing of different phases of data collection allowed for refining the tools as needed between phases. This brief provides an overview of the various tools used in the evaluation and how they contributed to assessing social norm change within Tipping point communities.
Phase 1 Tools for Social Norms Measurement
- FGD tool – for Adolescent Girls and Boys, Adults, and Religious Leaders
- Photovoice tool – for Adolescent Girls, Boys and Mothers in Nepal and Bangladesh
- SenseMaker tool – for key community members in Bangladesh
The Tipping Point Community Participatory Analysis (CPA) Study was designed to deepen understanding of the contextual factors and root causes driving the prevalence of child marriage in a particular region of Bangladesh which has high rates of the practice. The findings were also intended to inform innovative and context-specific program design. With regard to monitoring and evaluation, the CPA study’s purpose was to provide clarity on outcomes and measures to focus on the project’s overall monitoring, evaluation, and learning activities, and to provide baseline data for some indicators of change for use in the future. Of particular note, these include girls’ visions for themselves, the visions of parents for their daughters, and the prevailing knowledge and perceptions of the risks and benefits of early marriage versus waiting. A less conventional objective of the study was to promote learning and build capacity at the local level. With the Tipping Point Phase 1 implementation, CARE structured a project that incorporates a focus on learning by proactively creating space for review and reflection at every level. Hence, the CPA study was designed in a manner that would build the capacity of the project field staff as knowledge workers, build their skills to engage with participatory data collection tools, analyses and sense-making, and use findings from their research to inform the program design. The project endeavored to instill in field facilitators and social mobilizers, and partner organizations and staff, the sense that they all contribute in important ways to research and learning by reflecting, in real time, on their work with community members and by being a core part of the study.
The collection of tools used in this study in Bangladesh are made available for adaptation publicly. These tools were used as part of the formative research for the Tipping Point Initiative Phase 1 in Sunamganj, Bangladesh. For more information on how to use the tools, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Revised Citation and Acknowledgements
1. CARE and Emory University grant permission to all not-for-profit organizations engaged in social justice and humanitarian activities to reproduce this work, in whole or in part. The following notice shall appear conspicuously with any reproduction: “Yount, K. M., Clark, C. J., Bergenfeld, I., Kalra, S., Sharma, S., Ghimire, S., Naved, R. T., Parvin, K., Talukder, A. Tipping Point Initiative Impact Evaluation: Nepal Baseline Girls’ Questionnaire. Emory University; icddr,b. Copyright © 2019 Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Inc. (CARE). Used by Permission.”
2. CARE and Emory University grant permission to all not-for-profit organizations engaged in social justice and humanitarian activities to reproduce this work, in whole or in part. The following notice shall appear conspicuously with any reproduction: “Yount, K. M., Clark, C. J., Bergenfeld, I., Kalra, S., Sharma, S., Ghimire, S., Naved, R. T., Parvin, K., Talukder, A. Tipping Point Initiative Impact Evaluation: Nepal Baseline Boys’ Questionnaire; Emory University; icddr,b. Copyright © 2019 Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Inc. (CARE). Used by Permission.”
3. CARE and Emory University grant permission to all not-for-profit organizations engaged in social justice and humanitarian activities to reproduce this work, in whole or in part. The following notice shall appear conspicuously with any reproduction: “Yount, K. M., Clark, C. J., Bergenfeld, I., Kalra, S., Sharma, S., Ghimire, S., Naved, R. T., Parvin, K., Talukder, A. Tipping Point Initiative Impact Evaluation: Nepal Baseline Community Questionnaire; Emory University; icddr,b. Copyright © 2019 Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Inc. (CARE). Used by Permission.”
The Nepal Tipping Point Impact Evaluation Quantitative Survey is based on a draft questionnaire icddr,b developed for the CARE Tipping point initiative and a questionnaire funded by UK AID/the Overseas Development Institute through the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) consortium to Emory University for the GAGE Room-to-Read Girls Education Program Impact Evaluation in Nepal (ID 0000048036 Yount PI). We thank GAGE and Emory University for permission to use these modules in the Nepal Tipping Point Impact Evaluation.